Official Article

The Role of Laboratory Diagnosis in Children with Chronic Diarrhea

Chronic diarrhea is defined as diarrhea which has occurred for more than 14 days and if it is caused by infection, then it is known as persistent diarrhea. The incidence rate of persistent diarrhea in some developing countries is ranged between 3-23%.1,2 In order to establish diagnosis and to provide treatment of chronic or persistent diarrhea, we need a simple and non-invasive examination such as stool analysis. It should be continued with stool culture and stool parasite analysis to discover the etiologic pathogenic bacteria or parasite.3,4 Invasive examination such as colonoscopy is occasionally needed in order to discover infective colitis grossly and to obtain colon biopsy at once to differentiate infection and non-specific inflammation.5 This study is aimed to recognize the result of stool examination and colonoscopy in patients with persistent diarrhea in Department of Pediatrics Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital for three months period.

Association between Socioeconomic Status and the Prevalence of Intestinal Worm Infection in Primary School Children

Intestinal worm infection, is still high in Indonesia. It is understood because Indonesia is a developing country with low socioeconomic status, knowledge, environmental and personal hygiene. This can support the spread and infection of worms. The highest prevalence and intensity were found in primary school children. In North Sumatera, the prevalence of 57-90% in 1995 was found in Suka village which is located at 1400 meter above sea level with temperatures between 18-22 oC and humidity of 70%.4 The number of primary school children infected was relatively high (648 persons). The population was 3821 people. Many with low income are predicted to be highly infected by intestinal worms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal worm infection in primary school children and its association with socioeconomic status and other factors such as age, gender, parents' education and parents' occupation.


Etiologi dan Pathogenesis Diare Persisten


Diare persisten merupakan penyebab penting kematian pada anak di negara berkembang.  Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia mengakui bahwa usaha untuk mengendalikan diare persisten belumlah cukup. Beberapa studi telah dilakukan untuk dapat merumuskan strategi penatalaksanaan dan pengendalian diare persisten.1 Sekitar 10 – 15 % episode diare akut akan menjadi diare persisten yang sering menyebabkan gizi buruk dan meningkatkan kematian.  Diare persisten sebagai penyebab 30 – 50 % kematian karena diare di negara berkembang.2,3

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